Uso de hidrolizados de pescado en la acuicultura: una revisión de algunos resultados beneficiosos en dietas acuícolas

Alessandra L. Cardoza Ramirez, Mariafernanda G. Guerra Espinoza, Alfredo R. Palomino Ramos

Resumen


Las industrias pesqueras y de acuicultura generan, cada año, un conjunto de residuos o desechos que incluyen piel, cabeza, vísceras, recortes y espinazos, representando más del 60% en volumen productivo. Estos residuos tienen altos contenidos de proteínas, y normalmente son procesados en productos de bajo valor comercial, como alimentos para animales, harina de residuos y fertilizantes. En los últimos años, se han venido desarrollando tecnologías para el aprovechamiento de éstos residuos y convertirlos en bioproductos de mayor valor agregado, como son los hidrolizados de proteínas, con interesantes aplicaciones en la alimentación animal. Los hidrolizados proteicos de pescado son productos obtenidos de la degradación enzimática o química de las proteínas de pescado en péptidos más pequeños, aminoácidos libres y nucleótidos, obteniéndose un alto contenido proteico con buen balance de aminoácidos, alta digestibilidad y mejor aprovechamiento de sus nutrientes. La inclusión de éstos hidrolizados en los alimentos acuícolas puede mejorar el crecimiento y la eficiencia alimentaria de los organismos acuáticos en cultivo. Este artículo presenta una revisión sobre investigaciones de la inclusión de hidrolizados proteicos de pescado en dietas experimentales para peces, crustáceos, moluscos y algas, y los efectos en los desempeños productivos, en los últimos veinte años.


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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17268/manglar.2021.029

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